A Complete Guide to Online Privacy in 2019

How often one shares his likings, wishes,
and plans with anyone? Guess, not even the closest ones would know about every detail. However, one always reveals every
data to the “Modern shadow” that
forms a digital copy of the person. Nowadays, information which one wishes to
keep up to himself could be acquired by
the government, big businesses, and illegal groups.

Privacy is having control over the sharing of the data that an individual or a group has generated through any online or offline activity.

The level of privacy required differs from
person to person. One may not be comfortable in revealing his photographs, but
the other one would not even mind sharing his location. People safeguard the data
to maintain the security, but many don’t
consider it as a threat.

Higher the level of privacy, lower the threat to security.


The Connection between Privacy and Security

As we have already mentioned, privacy is
having control over the sharing of data.
When we provide our information to someone, we consider them as a trustworthy entity, and rely
on them that our data would be kept secure. However, if they sell or
rent our data to any third-party, our privacy gets compromised if it’s done against
our consent or through trickery.

But, if someone gets unauthorized access of
the information through data breaching, security gets compromised.

For example, one has made an account on a
shopping website.

The data of your related to your search, your session time, the products which interest you more, the region from which you belong, etc. is collected, and then shared with data mining companies which may then work to find patterns through the data of different users. That’s how more hands acquire your data than you know, than you wish, disturbing your privacy.

That helps them to target the correct
audience, which increases the sale. However, it won’t be containing any personally identifiable information (PII),
and thus, it’s impossible for the third-party
to detect that what information belongs to which user.

However, if the data breach occurs because of hacking, poor security, inside job or by accidentally publishing the data, then it questions the security. If cyber-criminals get access to your credit card details, your name, address and contact information that you have added on the shopping website, then it could be harmful, affecting you and your security.

What is Data Breaching?

To understand this in simple terms, let’s have a look over the example of a book. When the data is stored locally, and not connected to any network, it acts like a book placed in one’s room which can’t be accessed by anyone. The person who is interested in the book’s information needs to come to one’s room and find it manually. This is the case without the internet connected.

Now, think of a
box where everyone has stored their respective books.
Even if they have locked their books, anyone can reach the book through the box. One
would just need to break the lock to read
anyone’s data. That’s how one’s information over the Internet could be found
and breached by anyone. With the internet,
reaching to someone’s data has become facile, and that’s why people need to
implement trustworthy locks.

Now, the question arises, how hard is it to break the lock? Well, it depends upon the platform that one is using. Different operating systems, browsers, networks, and websites have a different level of security, and it matters a lot that how much they individually care about our privacy, and how much data they store about us.

With time, the data breaching incidents
have been increasing. However, initially, it was done with the help of “inside
communication” and with “logically deciphering code.” With the changing world and strengthening of security, it isn’t
possible every time to break through the system and get information by the above data breaching techniques.

With time, spies were replaced with hackers, letters with e-mail and the new form of information such as credit card
details and data generated over social media came into existence.

In the 1980s,
around the time when the internet was born, the frequency of disclosure of
sensitive private information had shown tremendous growth, and as we entered in the 21st century, the number and impact increased

Some Notable Examples of Large-scale Data Breaching

Yahoo’s 3 billion accounts compromised without a clue

In the year 2013 and 2014, this data breach incident was conducted which remained unknown till the year 2016 when a third-party reported about it. Initially, it was assumed that 500 million accounts were hacked but later, the investigation reported that all the 3 billion accounts were affected.

It was not
known till 2017 that who and how the breach was conducted. According to former Yahoo CEO, Marissa Mayer, the attack
was Russian state-sponsored, and there
are Russian intelligence officers behind this. However, although the attack is
considered complex according to Yahoo, there are possibilities that it might
have taken place because of usage of weak
and outdated encryption.

Edward Snowden unmasked NSA and the Eyes

Let’s have a look that these eyes consist
of which countries:

Five Eyes:

  1. U.S.A
  2. Canada
  3. Australia
  4. New Zealand
  5. U.K.

Nine Eyes:

  1. Denmark
  2. France
  3. Norway
  4. Netherlands

Plus, all the Five Eyes Countries.

Fourteen Eyes

  1. Germany
  2. Belgium
  3. Italy
  4. Sweden
  5. Spain

Plus, all the Nine Eyes countries.

It was
already known for a long time that
these countries are helping each other whenever tracking down of data is
required. However, before Edward Snowden’s release of NSA’s documents, no one
could’ve even guessed that these
countries are tracking one another’s every
citizen and gathering data about them.

There is the existence of numerous surveillance programs which are performed by
these government services to collect the data. In the PRISM surveillance program, the data is collected from the software tycoons that hold the data for millions of users. They also perform upstream
collection which is done by directly collecting
the data with the help of telecom services, and Internet provider service. One
can’t opt out
of it, and it’s sure that here his
online privacy gets compromised.

Facebook: The Advanced Driller for Mining the Data

Recent data breach which has put Mark
Zuckerberg in shame was no less than a shock for every Facebook user. The shock that some strangers know all about
the information that one has put on
Facebook including the private messages and media

Data analysis works to find important
patterns helpful in making the data-driven
decision. These decisions are more powerful when
the inside information is made available to data analysis companies.

Cambridge Analytica is the best example
that we could put here. They had information related to 87 million Facebook
users including messages and timeline feed of many users. This helped to identify
the interests of the users on a deeper
level that not even the people around them would know.

The breach took place with the help of the
application, “This is Your Digital Life.” This application was owned by
Cambridge Analytica which they used to survey
with several hundred thousand Facebook users. Because of Facebook’s design,
they were able to get the personal information including the messages and
timeline posts through an informed consent process.

Hackers found data on Adult Friend Finder

Hacker instead of an Adult Friend, were more interested in finding the key
to the Adult Friend Finder databases. This incident took place in November 2016,
after which a data breach notification website, LeakedSource provided the
number of exposed accounts.

It was
estimated that more than 100 million accounts were breached, but the number goes above 420 million users in the
final report. The six databases contain information about the user’s email
address, his username, and password which
was present in plaintext or it was hashed using SHA1.

The data breach might not have occurred due
to the efficiency of the hackers but because of the poor security that Adult
Friend Finder provided. Because of this, sensitive information about any
account was readily available and sold over the internet.

When Hackers trolled the Indian Government

It was
one of biggest government failures when the Aadhar database was hacked. Aadhar is the prominent identity
proof for Indian citizens which contains even the information about the
biometrics and contact details.

Around one billion accounts were affected after which anyone can get the possession of the information just by paying a few bucks. Not only this, but there are patches which have been used to generate anyone’s Aadhar from anywhere in the world. These patches are actually used to update a software program whenever required. That’s how the hackers alter the functionality of the software and add the information.

Ashley Madison gold-dug by Hackers

Ashley Madison is the online dating site
whose data, including PII, was breached in the year 2015. Some users only used the account just once, but
after that, they were unable to delete it as Ashley Madison asks to pay if
someone wishes to delete the account. However, the breach revealed that they do not delete the data, and the website
stores it even after someone pays to delete the account.

The breach hit the emotional site as the
data published contained highly personal information which had harmed the
reputation of several users. Avid Life Media (parent company) was asked to
close the websites, Ashley Madison
and Established Men which were unethical according to the hackers.

Two unconfirmed suicides were also reported which were linked to the breached. In total, 30
million email addresses and credit card details of some of the users were also exposed. Many of the Saudi accounts
were also exposed, and in Saudi Arabia,
adultery can be punished with the death penalty.

One company collected the data from the breach
and started a search engine in which anyone can enter the user’s name. If the
user’s name matches with the database,
the company sends threatening letters asking them to pay the company otherwise
their information will be exposed.

This breach has affected the users
significantly which would have had long-lasting effects on their lives as the
leakage might have caused personal issues.

Mt. Gox: When a Bitcoin was equal to a cent

Bitcoins, everyone thought, would remain
free from the fraudulent financial acts
happens while one deals with the centralized financial system. However, even
cryptocurrencies have their limitations, and in the case of Mt. Gox, a bitcoin
exchange company, the limitation was exposed. A hacker, by taking advantage of vulnerabilities of complex
security system accessed Gt. Gox
auditor’s system and changed the nominal price to one cent.

Nearly 2000 BTC were transferred to the hacker’s account when the price was decreased artificially by himself. Hacker conducting this data breach was never caught, and not a single bitcoin was obtained back. Afterward, to build the confidence of the investors, and for the sake of reputation, the company compensated the stolen bitcoins and placed them in the bitcoin wallet which is not connected to the internet.

Panama Papers: Even wealthies are not safe from data breaches!

Mossack Fonseca & Co. was once the fourth-largest law firm which provided financial services. After
the breaching of 11.5 million documents, Panama Papers were published. Panama Papers contains the financial information
about many wealthy individuals all over the world, and also have records dating
back from the year 1970s.

These records were obtained by the person assumed to have a name, “John Doe.” He
hacked through the company’s email server which had poor information security
that works with the help of an older
version of key tools.

This document has a data size of
approximately 2.6 TB and contains information which can put many wealthy
individuals behind the bar if legal action is
taken against them.

Some Must Know Basics

Data Encryption

Whatever we share over the internet is in
the form of plaintext which could be directly obtained by anyone. However, if
we use a specified algorithm according to which we change the text, the
ciphertext is obtained which one can’t understand without the knowledge of our
algorithm. The algorithm is the “Key” according to which one can encrypt and
decrypt the data.

The data encryption standard developed by
IBM was used as the standard encryption
by NSA. However, NSA asked IBM to make a few changes which generated
controversy that these changes would allow NSA to eavesdrop if required. After
this, implementation of Advanced Encryption Standard was developed which is used by most of the present-day security
products and for secure communication.

Two Factor Authentication

Two-factor authentication offers an extra layer of security in addition to a password. It adds a second lock, and the key exists in
the information that only you would know. Even Though if someone gets access to
the passwords, still, he would need to find a way to get through the second
piece of security.

One-time password
or SMS verification is widely used by payment gateways and access certain
online accounts. After adding the password, the website verifies your identity
through the cellular device or e-mail by sending you a code that you need to
enter in a specified text box available on the web page.

Physical security
keys such as yubikeys were developed which provides two-factor authentication
for several websites such as Google, Facebook, and Github. For accessing the
account, you need to have physical access to the key which one needs to insert
in the USB port and with a tap on the provided button, you get the access of
your account. However, before that, you need to log in to your account with the
account password.

If one loses the
key, and there is no way to recover it, backing up the authentication with applications
such as Google Authenticator and authy would be a good idea. These applications
generate security codes which change after a specific time. Every time you log
in, you need to add this code from the application. So, even if someone has a breach
to the company’s database, still he won’t get access to your account because of
two-factor authentication.

Strong Passwords

Brute Force is a method of breaking
passwords with permutation and combination methodology. It is obvious that
shorter the password, lesser the combinations, easier to break. If the password
only contains Alphabets, then the number
of combinations exists in the form of:

26x [X denotes the password length]

If the use of numbers is included in the password, total combinations exist in the form of:

[26 + 10] x = 36x
where 26 denotes the total number of Alphabets and ten stands for the use of 0 to 9.

There are total 32 symbols that are allowed to be added in a password so if one uses them along with the alphabets and number the total combinations that exist are:

[26 + 10 + 32] x = [68] x

Here, we know that the password length is denoted by X, so if we use a password length
of two characters the number of combinations would be 68 x 68 = 4624. Even if
we increase the password length to five characters the number of combinations
increases to 1,453,933,568. So, by increasing length by one character, one gets
68 times more powerful password then the previous
one. Thus, the use of symbols, numbers, and alphabet along with a suitable password
length will security provide a higher level of security.


HTTPS is a widely
used communication protocol that is used over the internet for secure communication. Transport Layer Security is used
to create bidirectional encryption
between the server and client which helps to protect the data from man-in-the-middle attacks. It provides
authenticity to the website that the user access and also ensures a secure
connection that could function strongly against data breaching.

Data Theft

Data theft compromises the privacy of the
user by stealing the information. The information could be of any type even
with a high level of sensitivity. The data could be obtained from any type of
source. Generally, the data is stolen
from the electronic mediums such as computer and smart phones which could be vulnerable to many intruders which we
have mentioned in the later section. Large databases of various websites from the
different sector were hacked, and the act of data theft breached. through the privacy
of individual

Different Types of Personal Data Breaches & Solutions

Phishing and Keyloggers

Phishing is the methodology of impersonating as a trustworthy identity by which the cyber-criminals acquire user’s sensitive information. This data could be comprised of one’s social security number, credit card information, and passwords. After that, it delivers one’s information to the third-party, without one’s permission, the backend unit which received the data that could be utilized in any way it desires.

Some Google Chrome Extensions Available for Installation

Phishing is the methodology of impersonating as a trustworthy identity by which the cyber-criminals acquire user’s sensitive information. This data could be comprised of one’s social security number, credit card information, and passwords. After that, it delivers one’s information to the third-party, without one’s permission, the backend unit which received the data that could be utilized in any way it desires.

One another way by which the
cyber-criminals get their hands on our data is through key-loggers. By tracking your keyboard activity, within
no time, they can trace your passwords and pins. Keyloggers get installed in
the same way like any spyware, but mainly through e-mail attachments.

Even after its harmful use, key-loggers are
completely legal as they are used by
employers to track their employees’ activities. It is also used in schools and
colleges to save students from performing any wrong
acts by using educational property. This is also
used in parental control software programs
such as Windows Keylogger and Actual
Keylogger; so that parents could keep an eye on their children’s
activity for safeguarding online privacy.


Phishing exists as one of the oldest online
con technique. In the year 2009, according to the FBI director of that time, one of the largest international phishing cases
was committed. In total, $1.5 million
were transferred into fake accounts by duping Hotmail users who revealed their
bank details due to this phishing scam.

In the keyloggers, one may not even know
that its activities are being tracked as
the key-loggers works secretly in the background. Because of Ursnif keylogger
scam in the year 2017, many users became the prey
of unwanted data sharing through keylogging. The victims received e-mail,
disguised as a requested invoice which contained one password protected word
file. The password was provided in the e-mail. As soon as they opened the file
and added the password, the keylogger gets installed in the system. Now the
spammers could get all the information about each stroke.

What you can do?

The most efficient way to avoid it is to be
smart enough to avoid it. However, getting some precautions with technological
implementations would be appreciated. Installing anti-phishing toolbar in your
browser will avoid your landing upon malicious sites. These software programs
could be added as extensions in the
browsers. If any website looks fishy,
then it will alert you and protect you against phishing scams.

If you need to visit a website necessarily
even if it looks suspicious:

  • Make sure that the URL of the
    website starts with “https.”
  • A closed lock icon must be
    present near the address bar.
  • Also, check the security
    certificate of that website before dealing it with.

Keyloggers could make the performance of
your system slow. Also, it may happen that sometimes when you wish to enter the
text, it won’t appear in the required area or perhaps there may be some time

But what if you don’t need to manually add
the credentials on the phishing web pages
or while a keylogger is installed in your

There are password managers available such as LastPass, Roboform and Dashlane which automatically saves and fills the passwords instead of manually adding them. Not just this but use of robust security features are also implemented.

The passwords are encoded using through
encryption and could only be obtained as
plaintext by using decryption key. User authentication is also added in few password managers that if through any new
website the credentials are required to be added, instead of sending the
master-password hashes, a one-time
password will be sent via contact
information (e-mail or phone number). Only after verification of the user, the
protected passwords would be obtained.

ID Theft

Imagine the situation while one is enjoying
a book seating near the fireplace and
suddenly police knock the door with an
arrest warrant.

Identity theft occurs when a person’s personally
identifiable information is obtained by
an imposter to get credit, do shopping and many more. Even the identity theft
could lead to the generation of criminal
records with false credentials.

It could be
obtained from individuals of different
groups providing different benefits:

  • Filing false tax return
  • Medical identity theft
  • Senior citizen identity theft
  • Minority identity theft
  • Children identity theft

And one will come to know that his identity has been
stolen when he realizes that the benefits which he requires to utilize are already used by someone else. After that, he may notice unknown bank withdrawals,
lower credit score, rejection from the health plan, etc.


A lady with the name Margot Somerville
was arrested and was accused of
defrauding several banks. Later it was
discovered that the real criminal was Harris-Frazier who used Margot’s
identity to commit these acts who was caught
after the discovery. Tens of thousands of dollars were obtained with his fraudulent actions.

Such incidents could even take place on a large-scale when someone obtains the
information such as driving license breaching through the government security.
After that, this information could be sold, and
different people could mask the identity of the person whose driving license was obtained.

What you can do?

Precautions are the best solution. However,
sometimes ID theft could occur even after
our careful check over the credit report and banking transactions. One can’t
monitor the use of personal data over the internet 24/7. Also, it’s tough to
identify that from where the data trading had occurred.

That’s why identity-protecting
services are utilized by many of the
users that let the user be carefree about the data. It monitors and notifies
you at the same time whenever the trade occurs. They keep track of usage of Social Security Number, monitor your PII over the dark web, give alerts
on bank and credit card activity and provides lost wallet protection.

LikeLock and IdentityForce are
some prominent services on which rely for safeguarding PII. These identity
theft safeguarding services also help the
individual to recover from the effects caused due to data theft by providing stolen
funds Reimbursement. Also, they also
cover the legal fees and provide personal expense compensation.

However, if the exchange and the usage of ID theft occur offline, it may not be easy to track it down.

Spyware & Malware

It’s similar to someone keeping an eye on
one’s house and knowing everything about what’s going on inside it. It will
know about every activity that one performs on his system and collect the data
and transfer it to another entity which could use this data for personal gains.
They are also used to monitor one’s activity over the Internet, and then it
shows ads according to that. It could be harmless in many cases; however, it’s
not good to take the chance.

There could
a possibility that cyber-criminals not only wish to keep track of your activity but also wishes to damage or get
unauthorized access to your system. In
that case, they would get malware installed in the system without your knowledge.


In the year 2017, the Israeli soldiers
became the prey of spyware which was downloaded
through the Google Play store in the form
of a genuine application. That wasn’t direct, but the hackers impersonated as
young women who lured the soldiers and
made them download one application through a link.

In total, 100 android devices were compromised, and total 9000 files including photos, audio, and sensitive information were obtained. The hackers generate the command
for searching and stealing official documents. This
had also questioned the national security of Israel.

Malware is all around, helping to
degrade the system’s health.

In the year 1988, the first large-scale
malware attack (Morris Worm) was conducted.
It spread through the internet on a very fast phase and harmed most of the
systems all over the United States including devices used at military locations
and medical research institution. However, the
privacy was not breached, the systems became severely slow.

What you can do?

There are hundreds of anti-spyware and
anti-malware products available ready to get installed. However, it’s essential to identify that what kind of
anti-malware software program would be beneficial.

Spyware software
programs are also available as parental
control tools and are commercially available such as Spyzie. However, they are
not installed through malicious links but like any other software. This kind of software programs can’t be removed
using anti-spyware because anti-spyware works with the rules set according to
the download methodologies. Anti-Spyware software programs such as SuperAntiSpyware & Spybot prevent
unwanted downloads that may install spyware. Also, if any software is already
installed, they will identify them and remove them efficiently.

Similarly, in the case of malware programs,
malware detection is done in three ways:

  • Signature-based malware detection
  • Behavior-based malware detection
  • Sandboxing

Signature-based malware detection only
detects the previously known malware programs by matching the hash function.
For detecting unknown malware, behavior-based malware detection and Sandboxing
could be used. Sandboxing is more
efficient than the other method.
Malwarebytes is one such anti-malware software program which offers such
methodology and also offers application hardening that crushes the hidden

One can even purchase Internet security
suites which provide the solution for
both spyware and malware. It would also save your device from other threats
which we are going to discuss further.


We would have categorized ransomware as malware, but this malicious software program
has earned a significant level of lousy
reputation when it comes to compromising data security. And so, it was essential to discuss it particularly.

One pleasant
morning could turn into a bad one as soon as one opens his system and finds the
message: “Your data has been encrypted, and for decrypting it, you need to pay the
amount asked or else your files will be lost
forever.” Ransomware encrypts your data, and for the deciphering it, one needs
to pay the amount asked.

These files could be related to a project on which one was working for months, or it may contain memories that one considers his lifetime earnings. Now, one doesn’t have an option, but to pay the amount. Usually, the transaction is done in exchange for Bitcoins so that no one else could track the entity that has runs and maintains this ransomware.


CryptoLocker was one such ransomware which
infected 250,000 systems during the ending months of 2013. The ransomware
collected an amount of $3 million that year
but didn’t provide the data to everyone.
The asymmetric encryption is used to lock the data which relies on two
different keys. The hacker uses the public key to encrypt the data, and for decrypting it, a private key is
required. However, this ransomware has not targeted MacOS.

Another severe attack took place in May
2017: WannaCry ransomware attack which had infected 200,000 systems across 150
countries. It is believed that the attack
was originated in North Korea. Again, in
the year 2018, it infected ten thousand machines of Taiwan Semiconductor
Manufacturing Company causing its shut down temporarily.

What you can do?

One simple solution is creating a backup for every
record stored in the system. However,
this may save you from paying the ransom asked in exchange for the data, but it won’t save your data from
hackers who may sell the information on the dark
web which could lead to identity theft.

An efficient
anti-ransomware product such as Hitmanpro.Alert is required to stop the ransomware from encrypting the data. It
works on the behavior-tracking methodology that doesn’t track down the activity of malicious software. It creates a backup
of those files before the ransomware could encrypt it. If ransomware doesn’t
stop targeting the other files, the software stops it by understanding the
motion and behavior.

Efficient ransomware should not only be capable of detecting the known
ransomware programs but should also have the ability to track and catch the new

Mobile Applications

Mobile applications are one of the biggest
sources of data collection. It occurs as
the individual allows the data collection by providing permission for accessing several features of the device.
Not only the access but also the permission to make the changes is provided. Sometimes, it’s genuine, but a few applications could take advantage of
this permission. However, apart from this, there are a few more threats which
make the mobile applications vulnerable to data breaching. Also, there could be
a possibility that the applications are spyware or malware in disguise. It’s
not only about the privacy breach through the application but also questions
the security provided.


Thirteen malicious applications were detected which were hiding in Play Store
under the developer name Luiz Pinto.
Out of these thirteen apps, two applications even made their way to the
trending section. Altogether there were
560,000 installations because of which these devices got affected by the malware,
which let the cyber-criminals have unauthorized access to these devices.

Applications such as Truecaller, Hiya, CallApp and Whoscall are collecting a huge amount of contacts related data from our mobile devices. Truecaller for example collects the data from our devices, and we let them show the contact information to other users at the time of messaging and calling. This is serious breaching the privacy of the contact which is saved in our device. However, it’s not the main concern.

The main concern is when data breaches occur, and databases of such application get stolen. The hackers could get
their hands on the contact information of millions of users which would make
the users’ privacy vulnerable.

What you can do?

Before you download an application, make
sure that:

  • Application has the minimum
    third-party involvement.
  • Provides binary protection so that no cyber-criminal
    could regenerate the application or sell a pirated version implemented with the
  • It is available on the app
    store and approved by the respective
    company that owns the store.
  • They use high-security encryption for the source code so
    that no one could identify the vulnerabilities present in the code.
  • Do not download the application from outside Application Stores.
  • Avoid permitting access to feature the application asks if it is not required at that time.

Search Engine Tracking

Google knows who you are, where you are, what
you search for, what you like and what you would like. Whatever we do over the internet using the search engine is recorded by the respective search engine. The
search result varies from person to person according to location and previous
searches. However, the data sharing is done
with our permission, and it has its
advantages as well as disadvantages.


Advantage: If you are searching for the
best doctors, it would be useless to you if you are in Chicago and the result
shows doctors available in London. The search engine utilizes the location
shared and shows the result for the doctors around you.

Disadvantage: For a holiday planning or for just satisfying the curiosity, one searches for hotels and restaurants at Hawaii. However, even after he closes the tab, it keeps showing the related advertisements on the other web pages. It could be annoying, and at the same time, it may lure one to make a wrong deal.

Now if we consider a case where we type “Dog Training” in the search box of a search engine, the results will appear. Now if the next search consists of any keyword placed before the “dog training,” it will automatically show it without typing again. Let’s say, you type “how to” and then it will show suggestion related to it: “How to train a dog,” “How to become a dog trainer,” etc. This shows the capability of the search engine to remember the previous searches. For some this may be a better user experience but you can imagine how even little data is used by these corporations and can adversely affect your privacy if you logged in and saved your search history.

Search Suggestions Are Predicted Based on Previous Searches

What you can do?

Using incognito has always been helpful to
avoid tracking. Even though, whatever one searches gets recorded in the search
engine’s database, it won’t show any relevant or irrelevant advertisement that
has anything to do with your search history. Also, it won’t show suggestions
according to the previous searches.

Showing relevant suggestions could be
beneficial, but again it may harm one’s
privacy. If one is concerned about the search engine tracking, he must not log in to the browser and the search engine. Logging in will
create a profile which would contain your daily searches according to which one
show advertisements and suggestion.

DuckDuckGo appears as a privacy savior who doesn’t create a profile of their users and does not change the search results
according to the previous keywords typed by the user. However, the show
advertisement based on the “current keyword search.” The filter of personalized
search is removed, and it focuses on
providing the best result rather than showing the link which is used the most.

One can also use Search Encrypt which
encrypts the data locally using AES 256-bit key encryption. Even if it checks
the URL that you visit, it claims to have no data logging policy. After
transmitting the data to the servers, the decryption takes place, and it’s search partners shows the result according
to the keyword.

Website Data Collection

Data could be collected voluntarily or
through data trackers which work in the
website background. The data recorded could be sold or rented to the
third-parties. Even though, if you visit a website and conduct minimal activity, then also some of your information is
collected. This could also be done for the website’s
improvement by identifying the users’ behavior. However, it could also be harmful if any hackers get their hands
on any sensitive data which we would have shared with the website for the betterment of our own experience with the

Voluntarily Provided Data
  • Information provided during
    sign up such as e-mail address, name, date of birth and country.
  • Payment method added to the website while making a purchase.
  • Searches made over the website
    according to requirements and likings and collecting them in history.
  • Location
    Sharing whenever required such as in food delivery and cab services.
  • Adding onymous comments
    providing your views along with your identity.
Data Collected Through Trackers
  • Tracking
    your IP address.
  • Device
    from which you are logged in to the system.
  • The
    time you spent on a webpage.
  • HTTP referrer which lets the
    website know that from which external link you have come to the current web
  • The
    user agent which allows the website to detect the operating system and browser
    which user is using.
  • Cookies
    such as credentials or changes made in the settings.

Web tracking is beneficial not only for the
website but also for the user. However, when third-party trackers are involved
the data tracking could become harmful. Whenever you visit a website, it logs
your visit on its website and for the particular web pages that you come
across. However, if another website is embedded
with it, it will also be allowed to keep your logs, and that could be done to identify your interests. This information
act as a helping hand for online marketing and advertising.


For different websites, different trackers were established which work in the background.
We visited one website that has twenty-four trackers working in the background
which were provided in five different

  • Site Analysis
  • Advertising
  • Customer Interaction
  • Essential
  • Social Media

Site Analysis trackers are required to
improve the performance of the website. Tracker such as ScoreCard Research Beacon monitors
the behavior of the user by finding
visiting patterns. Catchpoint renders end to end real-time analysis which lets the website have the details of
internet service through different aspects.

However, Trackers such as Amazon Associates
and Facebook Customer Audience keep the logs which helps them the third-parties
to market and sell their product by understanding the user behavior pattern.

So, whenever the third-parties are
involved, the data tracking could be harmful even if it doesn’t expose your

In the case of data breach just as in
happened in the case of Google Plus, the email, and
the name of 500,000 users were exposed even though they were private.
Sharing these kinds of information could be harmful and must be done in a
limited way.

What you can do?

Ghostery is an efficient anti-tracking device which not only tracks down the tracker but also informs the user about it along with the description. You could block all the trackers or a few according to the privacy that you require. Site analysis trackers are beneficial for the users and websites, so it is suggested not to block them. However, you must block the trackers which provide your information to the third-parties that use it for advertisement and marketing.

Advanced Tracking Analysis By Ghoestry Extension

Make sure that the website that you are
visiting is genuine and has an SSL certificate. SSL certificate lets the user
have an encrypted communication and whatever data is exchanged between the website and browser will be protected with
a layer of security.

Also, instead of providing payment
information, you can add anonymous payment methods such as Bitcoin which would
help to safeguard your identity.

Ads and Retargeting

Advertisements provided to you comes from
the cookies and supercookies which are
collected by the websites. Also, the tracker which we have mentioned in the
previous section plays an important role in targeting the audience.

A search engine such as Google also shows advertisements based on your
history as their algorithm suggests your interest in a particular product.

In the case of retargeting, websites add a javascript in the footer which collects the information about the user
behavior. Whenever the user visits the website again, the website would know
because of the cookies placed in your system anonymously. The advertisements
will appear again which helps them to convert the window shoppers into

In the case of
supercookies, they get permanently installed in the users’ systems using HTML5
web storage which can’t be
removed like the regular cookies.


Whenever you visit a website such as Amazon
and do some searches related to various
products, it would show relevant results and store the behavior in the form of
cookies. This one can remove directly through the browsers. If not deleted,
whenever one visits the website again, they will retarget the items under a particular section such as, “Products
that you would like,” or “Related to your products you have viewed.” This helps to catch the attention of the
potential buyer.

Even if you clear cookies, if you are
logged in to the account, Amazon would make a profile of your searches and
target and retarget the products accordingly.

As we have mentioned in the search engine
tracking also, Google could target the
advertisements based on your history and previous searches.

What you can do?

Clear cookies would be first and using ad
blocker would be another. There are inbuilt settings in the browsers related to
the content that the websites can track. You can always disable the content
that you don’t wish to share with websites. However, some websites may not
allow you its access.

In that case, one can install the adblocker
extension which may help them to avoid
certain advertisements. However, it won’t provide a solution to retargeting.

Even if you clear the cookies, super
cookies aren’t easy to detect and get rid of.

These cookies could be detected using Adobe
Flash Player settings manager where you
can find a list of flash cookies which is a type of supercookies. From here,
one can easily delete them all and to prevent any new addition of flash cookies
in the system Global Setting could be used.
Set the “size of data that a website is
allowed to store in your disk space” to none
and checkmark never ask again.

Social Media & Behavioral Targeting

Social media platforms are the best data
sources for the hackers as they provide not only
PII but also the sensitive data generate through messengers and timeline.
One can detect the likings and mindset of a user just by detecting his timeline
activity. The social media platform itself detects the users’ interests and
show advertisements and page promotions to those users.

However, more than this, access to messengers, sensitive media and text could be obtained; the cybercriminals could publish and sell the data.


Yes, what’s the first name appeared in one’s
mind? “Facebook?”

must be the one because who would forget about the news about Cambridge
Analytica Scandal that came out in the year 2018. Information about 87 million
people (according to Facebook) was collected
from Facebook including timeline feed and messages of some of the users.

One more Facebook attribute, Facebook Graph
Search makes the user more discoverable over this social media website. This
search engine lets the different searches
combine to provide results related to the people;
one is looking for. Such as the
search “people living in Berlin who have visited France” will provide
information about a specific crowd showing them as the search results.

Not just Facebook, but also the social media
websites such as Google Plus and Twitter
have faced data breaches concluding that it isn’t safe to use these websites.

What you can do?

To be anonymous is the best way to remain
hidden. The more data you share, easier to track your activity.

Limiting the data share using the privacy
setting can help to limit the control of other users over your information.
However, level of privacy varies with person to person, and so the sharing options could be changed accordingly.

  • Who
    can connect with you: No one, Friends of Friends, Anyone.
  • Who
    can see your contact information: No one, Friends of Friends, Anyone.
  • Who
    can discover your timeline content: No one, Friends of Friends, Anyone.

Such general privacy settings could be set according to the requirement of privacy.
However, it is still suggested that not
much information should be shared through which one can stack and identify your details. We would never know the intentions, and
it may lead to personal effects of data breaching. In the case of children, social media acts as a
catalyst for child trafficking and sextortion about which you can read it in
our child privacy guide.

GPS and Navigational Data

Services such as Google Maps and Foursquare efficiently track your location. It’s
useful on our side which helps us to know where we are or how to reach the
destination. These applications even tell about the best path, about its
traffic and the time that is required to reach there.

Also, the websites such as Facebook and
Instagram, use your location when you wish to add a check-in to a city,
restaurant or any other place.

This data could be used to create a profile
which contains the location history knowing that what places you visit the most
and where you have been.


Google Maps is
used by a vast number of users all
over the world. Google knows how many devices are present at a certain
position. With the help of that, traffic rate over any path could be recorded. That helps the users to provide
the accurate details that what amount of traffic he is going to face. That’s
not a threat, but on a personal level, it
logs whichever place you visit.

Google Showing Store Traffic Based on Android/Google Maps Data Tracking

It’s not just about the present location tracking they create, but also with the help of predictions. The machine learning features help to detect the density of the traffic that the user is going to face since traffic present on the road every day. Everyday data is collected and added which improves the prediction and provides accurate results.

Google also provides information about the real-time busyness of a particular place, and that information is obtained through smartphones.
The device location, even the location sharing is switched off, is provided to
Google which they could use under the “Popular Times” section of any business.

What you can do?

Location sharing must be provided only when
required the most. In the case of applications which require a location for check-in details, sharing must be avoided as it provides real-time information of the location publicly.

Using dedicated GPS navigation devices such
as Garmin which doesn’t require to
build your profile or keep logs for your data, one can safeguard his privacy.
Even if it keeps logs, it won’t be knowing about the person who is utilizing
the device as it doesn’t require any sign-up.
Also, it works without cellular data, so no chance of getting tracked by any
third party.

However, privacy comes with a cost, and you won’t be able to find out the traffic
which was provided by other navigational applications.

Through Browser

Browsers are the gateway to the internet
and every activity we perform over the internet
could be recorded by the browser. Every web page one visits are recorded as “History” by the browser.
History acts as a track record that could
be deleted from the device. However, one
can’t delete the track record that the
browser provides to the website that one visits. Every device has a unique
fingerprint that is generated according
to the browser settings, but if one doesn’t
allow exposing the data more than the
required data, identification of his device could be difficult.


If you go through Chrome’s privacy
settings, you will find content settings in which access to different features is asked. Here, you can disable the cookies so that the browser doesn’t let the website save any data
and read it afterward. You can also
control the use of javascript through it.
However, it was found inefficient for
many websites. Even after changing the settings, the Chrome allowed appearing
of pop-ups and redirects. So, it could not be clear if it’s reliable for
privacy or not.

What you can do?

The only solution to it is to use the
browsers such as Tor and Epic browser. Epic browser claims to block ads, data
trackers, fingerprinting without logging any of the user data. Even the URLs
can’t be visited through the search history as they aren’t recorded at all.

Tor is the most anonymous browser which is
not owned by any business but runs and is
maintained by a group of volunteers all over the world who are volunteering for
the Tor project. When one starts using
Tor, no information about the user could be
revealed. However, if one starts purchasing goods or provides credentials by logging in any website
one’s anonymity will decrease. Tor also works on the encryption methodology in
which not only one, but three levels of
encryption are used.

ISPs and Government Spying

Due to data retention laws present in many
of the countries, ISPs require to keep track of
user’s activities. Whenever the government
requires the data for investigation, they can access it through ISPs.

But not just this!

ISPs could even sell the data generated by
tracking the user to the advertising companies which are ready to pay a high price for it. That helps these companies
to direct their products to the correct audience.

You would have experienced lowering down of
your internet speed even if the weather is clean and the router is working fine. The reason behind this is bandwidth
throttling (intentional lowering down of speed by ISP). That may not be related
to privacy. However, allowing one to keep track
of bandwidth usage would be harmful.

What information can the government
agencies could obtain about any citizen

  • His current location and
    location history.
  • His
    credentials of any social media website.
  • The
    financial details and purchase history.
  • Call logs and messages.
  • & pretty much everything
    including the information that he would
    not have shared with anyone else.

Surveillance programs such as PRISM
conducted by government agencies such as NSA had
breached into the privacy of every

One could stay protected from the malicious
programs by taking protective measures. Careful use of different online
platforms will ensure the security from the data breaches through the website. However, when the government is the
one who is tracking the data, it could be
difficult and, more important to hide the information.


Chinese government with the use of “Great
Firewall of China” regulates the domestic internet. Because of that most of the
foreign websites have been blocked and exchange of international data has been decreased.

Under this program, certain IP addresses
are blocked and not allowed to be accessed, even the URLs have been filtered, and if every individual is monitored for continuously and if access of
any restricted website is done, someone
could be charged for that.

Privacy could be compromised not just by
the monitoring the data but also by hacking of systems without any fear of the law. NSA was
divided into three different categories:

  1. GAO division: Responsible for
    the collection of overseas data.
  2. SSO division: Responsible for
    the collection of domestic data.
  3. TAO division: Responsible for
    collecting data through hacking operations.

The intelligence agencies which are similar
to NSA are present are all over the world; for example, New Zealand’s NZSIS and
Canada’s CSIS were found outsourcing citizen surveillance data to partner

What you can do?

The Virtual private network separates one’s
data with the data presented over the
Internet. This data that is transmitted
over VPN works on the principle of encryption. The plaintext that the user
enters is changed into ciphertext with the help of VPN client. Then
the data travels through a secure tunnel which is generally not detectable.

Also, different servers of VPN providers
present all over the world changes the location of the user which helps the
user to access the geo-restricted content and also blocks the unauthorized
access of the websites which tend to track the location of the user. Even the
ISP won’t be knowing your true location and the websites you visit will also
remain hidden.

For Chinese user, Stealth VPN protocol is developed that mixes with the standard internet traffic and doesn’t allow one to detect the use of the virtual private network

Public Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi, it’s vulnerable if anyone is
allowed to connect with it. Wi-Fi network
provided at coffee shops and libraries allow anyone to connect with it. In that way,
anyone can see that which are the other devices utilizing the same Wi-Fi

Not only this, but it’s also easy to breach
through anyone’s device if he is using the same Wi-Fi that the hacker is using.
Applications such as zANTI which is a penetration testing toolkit is a hacker’s
best friend. By using the Metasploit framework, one can exploit the
vulnerabilities present in networks.


Israel’s second most populous city, Tel
Aviv had its Wi-Fi network hacked by the hacker name Amihai Neiderman. He hacked the Wi-Fi our of curiosity to check how
secure it is. It just took him three days to perform this task.

First, he found out the IP address of the
router to which he was connected. He looked for the open ports and found one.
All he required to do is to discover the vulnerabilities for taking the
complete control over the internet. For that, he tried to find vulnerabilities
in a different version of the same framework which provides lesser protection.
He discovered a vulnerability which was also present in this version.

By that, he took control over the Wi-Fi to
which the users of the whole city were connected.

What you can do?

It’s important to make sure that these
passwords should not be broken through
brute force. That makes it a lot easier for the hacker to bypass the password
just by a technique of placing combinations. To avoid this, one must use a strong password which consists of alphabets,
numbers, and symbols.

The above example shows how important it is to encrypt the data so that no one could get it. For that, a private network is required. Inside the public networks, a tunnel could be created which would provide a layer of security using VPN clients. The data inside the tunnel is secured by encryption, and so, it could be obtained directly

Reverse Search and Background Check

Nowadays, it’s easy to identify and find
every piece of information about someone just by one piece. There are several
search engines available which allow their users to conduct a reverse search, i.e.,
by knowing one thing about the person, you can shortlist a group of people who are having that data common.

And if you find something unique about the
person such as phone number or the vehicle number, you can get the complete
information about him by just paying a few bucks.


Reverse search websites such as pipl.com and spokeo.com are available to everyone. In both the cases, all you need to provide is one piece of information out of these: name, e-mail or phone number. You can get the complete record of the people who are having that the data that you have entered associated with their identity.

A Quick Search About “Jon Snow” Returns Many Identity Profiles on Profile Search Engines

In the case of Spokeo, one can even get the
results by entering the addresses. Even if it doesn’t provide the exact
information in some cases, it can at least give information about the people
living in that particular area.

Intelius is one of the top websites which
provide background check service. No one exactly knows that from where they
acquire the data, but there are possibilities that they are getting it from the
government records.

What you can do?

Well, frankly it doesn’t depend upon you
completely, and it matters a lot that how the government of your country is
safeguarding the details.

After these identity search websites get your data, you can opt out by contacting them. However, this is the tough part which may require you opt-out forms and send identity confirmations

Personal Health Records

If one visits the dark-web, he may come across his medical history for sale.

From where the dark-web got the access to
these Files?

Perhaps, from the medical entity with whom
one would have shared the data for

These medical organizations may or may not have
shared this data knowingly. There are many medical bodies where a data breach has taken place because of poor
security or due to hacking. Sometimes, it is
done with the help of someone who
could get access to the information. So, it is a complete gamble to rely on any
medical entity. Till now, if we add up all the significant data breaches, in
total, approximately 165 million records were breached since the year 2004.

The fear is not only of data breaching but
what if someone corrupts one’s medical reports by using them for himself? The
information in the medical report won’t be the same, and it could lead to misdiagnosis.


The biggest data breach occurred when hackers obtained Anthem Inc.’s 80 million (According
to the NewYork Times) records. The data contains personally identifiable
information, even containing the medical IDs and income to the person. That
data would have been sold on the dark
websites. The people whose data was stolen
may suffer issues related to identity theft. One disappointing but interesting
fact about this breach is that during the
investigation it was revealed that it was started with a phishing e-mail.

What you can do?

Treating your medical data as the financial
data is the only way by which you can carefully take charge of safeguarding it.
Like you don’t reveal everything about your financial details so, only let
anyone know what’s necessary in the case of medical details also.

Reviewing the medical records time to time is necessary because here the fear is not only about the breaching but also of misdiagnosis. Keeping a check on the medical data may reveal the changes which are made by the hackers, and then one can take actions accordingly

CCTV and Webcams

Closed circuit television is one of the prominent
ways by which one can keep his eyes on a specific place. It has many uses such
as traffic monitoring, sports events, and crime prevention. If any breach
occurs, the video could be altered even without the knowledge of the authority
handing it.

Websites such as earthcam.com and skylinewebcams.com
show the live view of several public
locations. These could be a purpose of security as well as entertainment to
have a look over the places which are visited by thousands of people daily.
However, this could affect the privacy of the person who has been watched through the camera. Also, he
doesn’t have an option to opt out if he visits the place.

The information remains with the respective
websites, but if the breach occurs, a huge
amount of personal data such as the location of a specific person at a specific
place would be obtained by the hackers.

Not only public, but the threats are also
to private CCTV cameras which one uses as a home security tool. With that, the
cyber-criminals could keep an eye over you tracking your every activity. This may contain sensitive information which
one would not like to become public. The cyber-criminals could affect one
physically and emotionally by conducting criminal activities such as blackmail.

If those cyber-criminals get into your
systems, there are even chances that they conduct Camfecting, and keep an eye on
someone through it. This is generally
done using by sending a Trojan software disguised as an innocent-looking application. After it gets installed, every second
of the victim’s activity gets recorded
and sent through the webcam.


In the year 2017, Romanian hackers were
looking to have some fun by hacking Washington’s surveillance cameras. Out of
one hundred eighty-seven cameras, they took over one hundred twenty-three
cameras which disturbed the security system of the city. This was done using spam e-mails which were
infected by ransomware. For three days, all the cameras were taken offline,
after which software was removed and then reinstalled again.

Website with the name insecam.com claims
that it has hacked thousands of private cameras placed at shops, homes, farms,
etc. On the website, one may find the
category option by which he can stream the cameras of several locations
according to the person’s choice. This is
very dangerous as they have access to every activity, and also shows the
description containing information about the activity, device used, and
location of the camera.

Macpatcher’s Youtube channel became popular
with the testimonials they received in the exchange of service they provided.
However, the service was fake, and the video testimonials were recorded without the knowledge of the
user. They convinced the victim that there’s a virus installed in the system,
and it could only be removed if they
remotely access the device. As they get the remote access of the system, it
lets the spammers to turn on the webcam.
They ask the victim to read the script which they record without the user’s
knowledge. These videos were afterward used
as testimonials for gaining the attention
of more and more users.

What you can do?

The most important step is to purchase the
right security camera. There are two types of security cameras present: IP and
analog, which are used for small-scale as
well as large-scale purposes. Even though
IP security cameras have better image quality and are easily manageable; they are more vulnerable to breaches. In analog security camera, the data
is transmitted in analog form using coaxial cables. Hacking through it would be
a tough game, so if one wishes to setup
small security surveillance for small shops or home, they can consider using

However, for the large-scale requirement, one needs to use IP cameras which are
vulnerable to breaches. Generally, breaching takes place by bypassing the dedicated network’s security or through the
device by which cameras are remotely accessed.
For avoiding it, using cameras which sends data in the form of encrypted
signals would be the best option.

Some precautions such as changing the password in short time intervals and keeping track of logins would safeguard or at
least make you aware if any breach

Regarding webcams, one must not allow downloading of any unrecognized software. Generally, the hacking takes place with the help of Trojan software programs. There are dedicated webcam protection software programs such as Secure Webcam and Webcam Protector which detects if the webcam gets enabled or if someone is accessing it remotely.

Breaching through Email Communication

E-mail communication is the traditional
electronic medium for communication which is the simplest, fastest, but the
most insecure way of communication. Breaching may occur while the email is in
transit, saved in the users’ system or stored in the email servers. There could
be legal breaching also by the company itself which stores all the information
that it gets through the emails that we send or receive.


Breaching: It has happened with the politicians
such as George H.W. Bush, Sarah Palin and Rowenna Davis which shows that even
with high security, it is not impossible to breach someone’s email. On a larger
scale News of the World has hacked
several emails of famous and infamous personalities using spyware. In total, a six-figure settlement was
provided officially to the victims whose email accounts were hacked. Other than this, many more settlements had been taken
place between the victims and the news channel.

Breaching: Gmail uses the content which we share
through email for retargeting advertisements. Perhaps, this could be done by
finding the keyword and matching it with the keywords associated with the
advertisement. That’s how the company knows that what kind of data is getting

What you can do?

Sending the data in the form of encrypted messages
could be the easiest solution. However, it isn’t time efficient and requires additional efforts. Email tracking option
helps you to identify if the email has been read
by someone. You can download Google Chrome extension: “Email Tracker”
which works for Gmail, Yahoo, and
Hotmail. That will let you know if any third-party gets the access to the
email. Apart from that Keeping, a strong
password would be helpful to avoid the breach through brute force.

Devastating Effects of Privacy Breach

Financial Loses

Stolen data could affect a company as well
as an individual financially. If the financial accounts are compromised due to breaching through the account information
such as debit card and credit card details, it may be misused by the hackers.

If the data breach occurs by trespassing
into an individual’s system, only he will get affected. On the other hand, if
that happens by breaching into an entity that stores payment information of
several individuals, then all the users may get affected with it, and large-scale financial loss could be

If a data
breach occurs, then the decrement in the company’s
reputation could lead to a reduction in
share prices. Even the loss that occurs due to the data breach may be
insignificant when it is compared with
the loss due to the damaged reputation.
Because of the loss of confidence in the
company, everybody starts selling the
shares at lower prices in fear of the collapse of the company. The net worth of
company decreases, and it may take years to regain the stability.

Personal Threats

No one would care about anyone’s
photographs or other media files, call records or messages till the time when
they could generate any kind of profit
from that. Such data leakages always attack
the personal life of the person. It often becomes
a way of blackmailing and hackers gets a handsome pay to keep the documents
secret. However, it’s not sure that they would keep the documents secret or not
even after the payment.

If a hacker learns about someone and starts
tracking him, criminal activities could also take place. Information about a
child could act as a catalyst in helping
the criminals to commit crimes such as
child trafficking and kidnapping. It may also make the security of other family
members vulnerable would already know about their every activity.

Data Abuse

One can’t make sure that if his data is
available on the dark web unless he is using any
ID theft guarding service. There could be thousands of data breaches
that would have gone undetectable. Through these data breaches, hackers would
be making millions by providing information about millions of people. On the dark-web, the information is categorized
according to location, gender, age, nationality, etc., and sold over different data selling websites.

Dark-web makes it much easier for cybercriminals to perform phishing campaigns. This is done
with the help of a phishing kit
containing phishing website resources. All the work that attackers need to do
is to get the email list of potential “phishes” which is also available on the dark-web and send them the e-mail. These
spammers continue the breaching chain through the fraudulent acts that they do
through varies means of communication.

Impact on the Society

This might have happened when Cambridge Analytica was executing research
over the personal data of 87 million Facebook accounts. One must not forget
that Cambridge Analytica is the data analysis company which was executing Trump’s
election campaign. With the help of data mining of personal information, a
digital copy of a person’s phycology could be
created, and his way of thinking could be learned. On a larger scale,
how a crowd acts towards activities is categorized, and their judgment could be altered without their knowledge.

Privacy is like safeguarding a material inside the container. The container belongs to a person who doesn’t wish to reveal what’s inside it. But there are several pores in the container through which external forces try to watch that what’s inside. However, one puts multiple layers of covers to the container to safeguard it from those intruders. Here, in real-time those intruders are the government, hackers, viruses, and cyber-criminals who are trying to keep a watch over one’s data. These layers of security are of products such as VPN, Tor, Anti-Spywares, etc., which act to save one’s data from others.


However, it is
not possible to cover every point of leakage, and a breach may occur. If one wishes to retain a hundred percent
privacy, one must keep a check over every pore from where data could be leaked. Take all the necessary steps and
never compromise to invest or to act in the favor privacy.

Well, if something belongs to you, its worthy to make attempts to secure it from others.

Kim Martin
Kim Martin Administrator
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